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MATHEMATICS

Principles of Mathematics, Grade 9, Academic (MPM1D)

This course enables students to develop an understanding of mathematical concepts related to algebra, analytic geometry, and measurement and geometry through investigation, the effective use of technology, and abstract reasoning. Students will investigate relationships, which they will then generalize as equations of lines, and will determine the connections between different representations of a linear relation. They will also explore relationships that emerge from the measurement of three-dimensional figures and two-dimensional shapes. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems.

**Prerequisite: None **

Foundations of Mathematics, Grade 9, Applied (MFM1P)

This course enables students to develop an understanding of mathematical concepts related to introductory algebra, proportional reasoning, and measurement and geometry through investi¬gation, the effective use of technology, and hands-on activities. Students will investigate real-life examples to develop various representations of linear relations, and will determine the connections between the representations. They will also explore certain relationships that emerge from the measurement of three-dimensional figures and two-dimensional shapes. Students will consolidate their mathematical skills as they solve problems and communicate their thinking.

**Prerequisite: None **

Principles of Mathematics, Grade 10, Academic (MPM2D)

This course enables students to broaden their understanding of relationships and extend their problem-solving and algebraic skills through investigation, the effective use of technology, and abstract reasoning. Students will explore quadratic relations and their applications; solve and apply linear systems; verify properties of geometric figures using analytic geometry; and investigate the trigonometry of right and acute triangles. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems.

**Prerequisite: Grade 9 Mathematics, Academic or Applied **

Foundations of Mathematics, Grade 10, Applied (MFM2P)

This course enables students to consolidate their understanding of linear relations and extend their problem-solving and algebraic skills through investigation, the effective use of technology, and hands-on activities. Students will develop and graph equations in analytic geometry; solve and apply linear systems, using real-life examples; and explore and interpret graphs of quadratic relations. Students will investigate similar triangles, the trigonometry of right triangles, and the measurement of three-dimensional figures. Students will consolidate their mathematical skills as they solve problems and communicate their thinking.

**Prerequisite: Grade 9 Mathematics, Academic or Applied**

Functions, Grade 11, University (MCR3U)

This course introduces the mathematical concept of the function by extending students' expe-riences with linear and quadratic relations. Students will investigate properties of discrete and continuous functions, including trigonometric and exponential functions; represent functions numerically, algebraically, and graphically; solve problems involving applications of functions; investigate inverse functions; and develop facility in determining equivalent algebraic expressions. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems.

**Prerequisite: Principles of Mathematics, Grade 10, Academic**

Advanced Functions, Grade 12, University (MHF4U)

This course extends students' experience with functions. Students will investigate the prop¬erties of polynomial, rational, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; develop techniques for combining functions; broaden their understanding of rates of change; and develop facility in applying these concepts and skills. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. This course is intended both for students taking the Calculus and Vectors course as a prerequisite for a university program and for those wishing to consolidate their understanding of mathematics before proceeding to any one of a variety of university programs.

**Prerequisite: Functions, Grade 11, University Preparation, or Mathematics for College Technology, Grade 12, College Preparation **

Calculus and Vectors, Grade 12, University (MCV4U)

This course builds on students' previous experience with functions and their developing understanding of rates of change. Students will solve problems involving geometric and alge¬braic representations of vectors and representations of lines and planes in three-dimensional space; broaden their understanding of rates of change to include the derivatives of polynomial, sinusoidal, exponential, rational, and radical functions; and apply these concepts and skills to the modelling of real-world relationships. Students will also refine their use of the mathemati¬cal processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. This course is intended for students who choose to pursue careers in fields such as science, engineering, economics, and some areas of business, including those students who will be required to take a university-level calculus, linear algebra, or physics course.

**Prerequisite: Note: Advanced Functions, Grade 12, University Preparation, must be taken prior to or concurrently with Calculus and Vectors.**

Mathematics of Data Management, Grade 12, University (MDM4U)

This course broadens students' understanding of mathematics as it relates to managing data. Students will apply methods for organizing and analysing large amounts of information; solve problems involving probability and statistics; and carry out a culminating investigation that integrates statistical concepts and skills. Students will also refine their use of the mathemati¬cal processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. Students planning to enter university programs in business, the social sciences, and the humanities will find this course of particular interest.

**Prerequisite: Functions, Grade 11, University Preparation, or Functions and Applications, Grade 11, University/College Preparation**

Foundations for College Mathematics, Grade 12, College (MAP4C)

This course enables students to broaden their understanding of real-world applications of mathematics. Students will analyse data using statistical methods; solve problems involving applications of geometry and trigonometry; solve financial problems connected with annui¬ties, budgets, and renting or owning accommodation; simplify expressions; and solve equations. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems. This course prepares students for college programs in areas such as business, health sciences, and human services, and for certain skilled trades.

**Prerequisite: Foundations for College Mathematics, Grade 11, College Preparation, or Functions and Applications, Grade 11, University/College Preparation **